Category Archives: Space

NASA

Highly Integrated THz Receiver Systems for Small Satellite Remote Sensing Applications

Abstract: We are developing miniaturized, highly integrated Schottky receiver systems suitable for use in CubeSats or other small spacecraft platforms, where state-of-the-art performance and ultra-low mass, power, and volume are required. Current traditional Schottky receivers are too large to employ on a CubeSat. We will develop highly integrated receivers operating from 520-600 GHz and 1040-1200 GHz that are based on state-of-the-art receivers already developed at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) by u…

Atmospheric Collapse on Early Mars: The Role of CO2 Clouds

Abstract: The abundance of evidence that liquid water flowed on the surface early in Mars’ history strongly implies that the early Martian atmosphere was significantly more massive than it is today. While it seems clear that the total CO2 inventory was likely substantially larger in the past, the fundamental question about the physical state of that CO2 is not completely understood. Because the temperature at which CO2 condenses increases with surface pressure, surface CO2 ice is more likely to form an…

Training, Retention, and Transfer of Data Entry Perceptual and Motoric Processes Over Long Retention Intervals

Abstract: Subjects trained in a standard data entry task, which involved typing numbers (e.g., 5421) using their right hands. At test (6 months post-training), subjects completed the standard task, followed by a left-hand variant (typing with their left hands) that involved the same perceptual, but different motoric, processes as the standard task. At a second test (8 months post-training), subjects completed the standard task, followed by a code variant (translating letters into digits, then typing th…

Radiation Environment Effects on Spacecraft

Abstract: Space poses a variety of radiation hazards. These hazards pose different risks for different missions depending on the mission environment, duration and requirements. This presentation presents a brief look at several radiation related hazards, including destructive and nondestructive Single-Event Effect, Total Ionizing Dose, Displacement Damage and Spacecraft Charging. The temporal and spatial characteristics for the environments of concern for each are considered.

Differential Drag Demonstration: A Post-Mission Experiment with the EO-1 Spacecraft

Abstract: Differential drag is a technique for altering the semi-major axis, velocity, and along-track position of a spacecraft in low Earth orbit. It involves varying the spacecrafts cross-sectional area relative to its velocity direction by temporarily changing attitude and solar array angles, thus varying the amount of atmospheric drag on the spacecraft. The technique has recently been proposed and used by at least three satellite systems for initial separation of constellation spacecraft after laun…

Update on Bayesian Blocks: Segmented Models for Sequential Data

Abstract: The Bayesian Block algorithm, in wide use in astronomy and other areas, has been improved in several ways. The model for block shape has been generalized to include other than constant signal rate – e.g., linear, exponential, or other parametric models. In addition the computational efficiency has been improved, so that instead of O(N**2) the basic algorithm is O(N) in most cases. Other improvements in the theory and application of segmented representations will be described.

Objective Assessment Method for RNAV STAR Adherence

Abstract: Flight crews and air traffic controllers have reported many safety concerns regarding area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs). Specifically, optimized profile descents (OPDs). However, our information sources to quantify these issues are limited to subjective reporting and time consuming case-by-case investigations. This work is a preliminary study into the objective performance of instrument procedures and provides a framework to track procedural concepts and assess des…

RNAV STAR Procedural Adherence

Abstract: In this exploratory archival study we mined the performance of 24 major US airports area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs) over the preceding three years. Overlaying radar track data on top of RNAV STAR routes provided a comparison between aircraft flight paths and the waypoint positions and altitude restrictions. NASA Ames Supercomputing resources were utilized to perform the data mining and processing. We investigated STARs by lateral transition path (full-lateral), v…

Enabling Future Science and Human Exploration with NASA’s Next Generation Near Earth and Deep Space Communications and Navigation Architecture

Abstract: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is studying alternatives for the United States space communications architecture through the 2040 timeframe. This architecture provides communication and navigation services to both human exploration and science missions throughout the solar system. Several of NASA’s key space assets are approaching their end of design life and major systems are in need of replacement. The changes envisioned in the relay satellite architecture and capab…

Electron Heating at Kinetic Scales in Magnetosheath Turbulence

Abstract: We present a statistical study of coherent structures at kinetic scales, using data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission in the Earths magnetosheath. We implemented the multi-spacecraft partial variance of increments (PVI) technique to detect these structures, which are associated with intermittency at kinetic scales. We examine the properties of the electron heating occurring within such structures. We find that, statistically, structures with a high PVI index are regions of significan…

New Development in NASA’s Rodent Research Hardware for Conducting Long Duration Biomedical and Basic Research in Space

Abstract: Animal models, particularly rodents, are the foundation of pre-clinical research to understand human diseases and evaluate new therapeutics, and play a key role in advancing biomedical discoveries both on Earth and in space. The National Research Councils Decadal survey emphasized the importance of expanding NASAs life sciences research to perform long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware, operations, and science …

Global Distribution and Parameter Dependences of Gravity Wave Activity in the Martian Upper Thermosphere Derived from MAVEN NGIMS Observations

Abstract: Wavelike perturbations in the Martian upper thermosphere observed by the Neutral Gas Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) onboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft have been analyzed. The amplitudes of small-scale perturbations with apparent wavelengths between approx. 100 and approx. 500 km in the Ar density around the exobase show a clear dependence on temperature (T(sub 0)) of the upper thermosphere. The average amplitude of the perturbations is approx. 10% on the days…