Category Archives: Space

NASA

NASA to Make Announcement About First Mission to Touch Sun

NASA will make an announcement about the agency’s first mission to fly directly into our sun’s atmosphere during an event at 11 a.m. EDT Wednesday, May 31, from the University of Chicago’s William Eckhardt Research Center Auditorium. The event will air live on NASA Television and the agency’s website.

Close-up View of Neutron Star Mission’s X-Ray Concentrator Optics

A new NASA mission, the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER), is headed for the International Space Station to observe one of the strangest observable objects in the universe. In this photo, NICER’s X-ray concentrator optics are inspected for dust and foreign object debris that could impair functionality once in space.

A Quasi-Global Approach to Improve Day-Time Satellite Surface Soil Moisture Anomalies through the Land Surface Temperature Input

Abstract: Passive microwave observations from various spaceborne sensors have been linked to the soil moisture of the Earth’s surface layer. A new generation of passive microwave sensors are dedicated to retrieving this variable and make observations in the single theoretically optimal L-band frequency (1-2 GHz). Previous generations of passive microwave sensors made observations in a range of higher frequencies, allowing for simultaneous estimation of additional variables required for solving the radi…

University-Level Teaching of Anthropogenic Global Climate Change (AGCC) via Student Inquiry

Abstract: This paper reviews university-level efforts to improve understanding of anthropogenic global climate change (AGCC) through curricula that enable student scientific inquiry. We examined 152 refereed publications and proceedings from academic conferences and selected 26 cases of inquiry learning that overcome specific challenges to AGCC teaching. This review identifies both the strengths and weaknesses of each of these case studies. It is the first to go beyond examining the impact of specific …

Synoptic Scale Influences on Increasing Summertime Extreme Precipitation Events in the Northeastern United States

Abstract: Over the past 15 years, the northeastern United States has seen a statistically significant increase in the frequency of extreme precipitation events that is larger and more widespread than anywhere else in the country. This increase in events is more likely to be associated with frontal and low-pressure systems, rather than being caused by more tropical cyclones impacting the region.

Revisiting Short-Wave-Infrared (SWIR) Bands for Atmospheric Correction in Coastal Waters

Abstract: The shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands on the existing Earth Observing missions like MODIS have been designed to meet land and atmospheric science requirements. The future geostationary and polar-orbiting ocean color missions, however, require highly sensitive SWIR bands (greater than 1550nm) to allow for a precise removal of aerosol contributions. This will allow for reasonable retrievals of the remote sensing reflectance (R(sub rs)) using standard NASA atmospheric corrections over turbid coast…

Beyond 3-D: The New Spectrum of Lidar Applications for Earth and Ecological Sciences

Abstract: Capturing and quantifying the world in three dimensions (x,y,z) using light detection and ranging (lidar) technology drives fundamental advances in the Earth and Ecological Sciences (EES). However, additional lidar dimensions offer the possibility to transcend basic 3-D mapping capabilities, including i) the physical time (t) dimension from repeat lidar acquisition and ii) laser return intensity (LRI?) data dimension based on the brightness of single- or multi-wavelength (?) laser returns. Th…

Performance and Durability of Environmental Barrier Coatings on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

Abstract: This presentation highlights advanced environmental barrier coating (EBC) and SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) systems for next generation turbine engines. The emphasis will be placed on fundamental coating and CMC property evaluations; and the integrated system performance and degradation mechanisms in simulated laboratory turbine engine testing environments. Long term durability tests in laser rig simulated high heat flux the rmomechanical creep and fatigue loading conditions will al…

Microbial Standards of Commercially Available Produce

Abstract: Limits and guidelines are set on microbial counts in produce to protect the consumer. Different agencies make specifications, which constitute when a product becomes unsafe for human consumption. Producers design their procedures to comply with the limits, but they are responsible creating their own internal standards. The limits and guidelines are summarized here to be applied to assess the microbial safety of the NASA Veggie Program.

Urban Biomining Meets Printable Electronics: End-To-End at Destination Biological Recycling and Reprinting

Abstract: Space missions rely utterly on metallic components, from the spacecraft to electronics. Yet, metals add mass, and electronics have the additional problem of a limited lifespan. Thus, current mission architectures must compensate for replacement. In space, spent electronics are discarded; on earth, there is some recycling but current processes are toxic and environmentally hazardous. Imagine instead an end-to-end recycling of spent electronics at low mass, low cost, room temperature, and in a …

Digital Device Architecture and the Safe Use of Flash Devices in Munitions

Abstract: Flash technology is being utilized in fuzed munition applications and, based on the development of digital logic devices in the commercial world, usage of flash technology will increase. Digital devices of interest to designers include flash-based microcontrollers and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Almost a decade ago, a study was undertaken to determine if flash-based microcontrollers could be safely used in fuzes and, if so, how should such devices be applied. The results were docu…

Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution with a High Generation Rate KTP Waveguide Photon-Pair Source

Abstract: NASA awarded Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts to AdvR, Inc to develop a high generation rate source of entangled photons that could be used to explore quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols. The final product, a photon pair source using a dual-element periodically- poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguide, was delivered to NASA Glenn Research Center in June of 2015. This paper describes the source, its characterization, and its performance in a B92 (Bennett, 1992…

Solar Power Generation in Extreme Space Environments

Abstract: The exploration of space requires power for guidance, navigation, and control; instrumentation; thermal control; communications and data handling; and many subsystems and activities. Generating sufficient and reliable power in deep space through the use of solar arrays becomes even more challenging as solar intensity decreases and high radiation levels begin to degrade the performance of photovoltaic devices. The Extreme Environments Solar Power (EESP) project goal is to develop advanced phot…