Category Archives: Space

NASA

Comprehensive Thematic T-Matrix Reference Database: A 2015-2017 Update

Abstract: The T-matrix method pioneered by Peter C. Waterman is one of the most versatile and efficient numerically exact computer solvers of the time-harmonic macroscopic Maxwell equations. It is widely used for the computation of electromagnetic scattering by single and composite particles, discrete random media, periodic structures (including metamaterials), and particles in the vicinity of plane or rough interfaces separating media with different refractive indices. This paper is the eighth update …

Model Development for MODIS Thermal Band Electronic Crosstalk

Abstract: MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 bands. Among them, 16 thermal emissive bands covering a wavelength range from 3.8 to 14.4 m. After 16 years on-orbit operation, the electronic crosstalk of a few Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands developed substantial issues that cause biases in the EV brightness temperature measurements and surface feature contamination. The crosstalk effects on band 27 with center wavelength at 6.7 m and band 29 at 8.5 m increased significantly i…

DART: Recent Advances in Remote Sensing Data Modeling With Atmosphere, Polarization, and Chlorophyll Fluorescence

Abstract: To better understand the life-essential cycles and processes of our planet and to further develop remote sensing (RS) technology, there is an increasing need for models that simulate the radiative budget (RB) and RS acquisitions of urban and natural landscapes using physical approaches and considering the three-dimensional (3-D) architecture of Earth surfaces. Discrete anisotropic radiative transfer (DART) is one of the most comprehensive physically based 3-D models of Earth-atmosphere radiat…

The Statistical Mechanics of Solar Wind Hydroxylation at the Moon, Within Lunar Magnetic Anomalies, and at Phobos

Abstract: We present a new formalism to describe the outgassing of hydrogen initially implanted by the solar wind protons into exposed soils on airless bodies. The formalism applies a statistical mechanics approach similar to that applied recently to molecular adsorption onto activated surfaces. The key element enabling this formalism is the recognition that the interatomic potential between the implanted H and regolith-residing oxides is not of singular value but possess a distribution of trapped ener…

Converging Climate Sensitivities of European Forests Between Observed Radial Tree Growth and Vegetation Models

Abstract: The impacts of climate variability and trends on European forests are unevenly distributed across different bioclimatic zones and species. Extreme climate events are also becoming more frequent and it is unknown how they will affect feed backs of CO2 between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere. An improved understanding of species differences at the regional scale of the response of forest productivity to climate variation and extremes is thus important for forecasting forest dynamics. In th…

Weather from 250 Miles Up: Visualizing Precipitation Satellite Data (and Other Weather Applications) Using CesiumJS

Abstract: Geospatial weather visualization remains predominately a two-dimensional endeavor. Even popular advanced tools like the Nullschool Earth display 2-dimensional fields on a 3-dimensional globe. Yet much of the observational data and model output contains detailed three-dimensional fields. In 2014, NASA and JAXA (Japanese Space Agency) launched the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite. Its two instruments, the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) ob…

Historical Carbon Dioxide Emissions Caused by Land-Use Changes are Possibly Larger than Assumed

Abstract: The terrestrial biosphere absorbs about 20% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. The overall magnitude of this sink is constrained by the difference between emissions, the rate of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the ocean sink. However, the land sink is actually composed of two largely counteracting fluxes that are poorly quantified: fluxes from land-use change andCO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. Dynamic global vegetation model simulations suggest that CO2 emissions from land-us…

Assessment of Terra MODIS On-Orbit Polarization Sensitivity Using Pseudoinvariant Desert Sites

Abstract: The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is currently flying on NASA’s Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua satellites, launched in 1999 and 2002, respectively. MODIS reflective solar bands in the visible wavelength range are known to be sensitive to polarized light based on prelaunch polarization sensitivity tests. After about five years of on-orbit operations, it was discovered that the polarization sensitivity at short wavelengths had shown a noticeable increase. In this …

Long Way From Home

This picture of a crescent-shaped Earth and Moon – the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft – was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA’s Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles (11.66 million kilometers) from Earth. The moon is at the top of the picture and beyond the Earth as viewed by Voyager.

Quantifying the Causes of Differences in Tropospheric OH Within Global Models

Abstract: The hydroxyl radical (OH) is the primary daytime oxidant in the troposphere and provides the main loss mechanism for many pollutants and greenhouse gases, including methane (CH4). Global mean tropospheric OH differs by as much as 80% among various global models, for reasons that are not well understood. We use neural networks (NNs), trained using archived output from eight chemical transport models (CTMs) that participated in the Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurement…

Impact of MODIS Sensor Calibration Updates on Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Reflectance and Albedo Trends

Abstract: We evaluate Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface reflectance and albedo trends using the newly released Collection 6 (C6) MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products over the period 2001-2016. We find that the correction of MODIS sensor degradation provided in the new C6 data products reduces the magnitude of the surface reflectance and albedo decline trends obtained from previous MODIS data (i.e., Collection 5, C5). Collection 5 and 6 data product analysis over GrIS is chara…

On High-Order Upwind Methods for Advection

Abstract: Scheme III (piecewise linear) and V (piecewise parabolic) of Van Leer are shown to yield identical solutions provided the initial conditions are chosen in an appropriate manner. This result is counter intuitive since it is generally believed that piecewise linear and piecewise parabolic methods cannot produce the same solutions due to their different degrees of approximation. The result also shows a key connection between the approaches of discontinuous and continuous representations.

Methods for Identifying Ligands that Target Nucleic Acid Molecules and Nucleic Acid Structural Motifs

Abstract: Disclosed are methods for identifying a nucleic acid (e.g., RNA, DNA, etc.) motif which interacts with a ligand. The method includes providing a plurality of ligands immobilized on a support, wherein each particular ligand is immobilized at a discrete location on the support; contacting the plurality of immobilized ligands with a nucleic acid motif library under conditions effective for one or more members of the nucleic acid motif library to bind with the immobilized ligands; and identifying…

Reverse Core Engine with Thrust Reverser

Abstract: An engine system has a gas generator, a bi-fi wall surrounding at least a portion of the gas generator, a casing surrounding a fan, and the casing having first and second thrust reverser doors which in a deployed position abut each other and the bi-fi wall.

Compliant Interfacial Layers in Thermoelectric Devices

Abstract: A thermoelectric power generation device is disclosed using one or more mechanically compliant and thermally and electrically conductive layers at the thermoelectric material interfaces to accommodate high temperature differentials and stresses induced thereby. The compliant material may be metal foam or metal graphite composite (e.g. using nickel) and is particularly beneficial in high temperature thermoelectric generators employing Zintl thermoelectric materials. The compliant material may …

Cavity Pull Rod: Device to Promote Single Crystal Growth from the Melt

Abstract: A pull rod for use in producing a single crystal from a molten alloy is provided that includes an elongated rod having a first end and a second end, a first cavity defined at the first end and a second cavity defined at the first end and in communication with the first cavity. The first cavity receives the molten alloy and the second cavity vents a gas from the molten alloy to thereby template a single crystal when the pull rod is dipped into and extracted from the molten alloy.

Multi-Spoked Wheel Assembly

Abstract: A robust ground traction (drive) assembly for remotely controlled vehicles, which not only operates smoothly on surfaces that are flat, but also upon surfaces that include rugged terrain, snow, mud, and sand, is provided. The assembly includes a sun gear and a braking gear. The sun gear is configured to cause rotational force to be applied to second planetary gears through a coupling of first planetary gears. The braking gear is configured to cause the assembly (or the second planetary gears)…

Comprehensive Oculomotor Behavioral Response Assessment (COBRA)

Abstract: An eye movement-based methodology and assessment tool may be used to quantify many aspects of human dynamic visual processing using a relatively simple and short oculomotor task, noninvasive video-based eye tracking, and validated oculometric analysis techniques. By examining the eye movement responses to a task including a radially-organized appropriately randomized sequence of Rashbass-like step-ramp pursuit-tracking trials, distinct performance measurements may be generated that may be ass…